brain teaser questions and answers for adults

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>>Commentator: We have here today, Steve withus whom I met not too long ago at something called a Smart Life Forum in Palo Alto, wheremany of the health professionals from this area meet every month and keep up with thecurrent research. And he was the one person that seemed the smartest there, so I invitedhim to come here and talk to us and share some of his knowledge with us. So please helpme in welcoming Steve here and see how, what he has to say. [applause] >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: It’s a,it’s a pleasure to be here. I’m about one week post-flu, so my voice may get a littlebit weak, so please bear with me. I’m gonna, the, the plan is I’m gonna spendabout 40 minutes going through the presentation and then hopefully have 15 or so minutes leftfor your questions. People like to raise questions and dialog?Okay. Good. [pause] Okay. I, I did this first slide with the ideaof opening up the dialog at the point of talking about cognitive performance, mental performance. What does that mean? I mean everybody talks about intelligenceand everybody knows about problem solving and reaction time and, and memory and thingslike that. But in my opinion, mental performance is about any aspect of mental performancethat relates to your health. And the number one aspect that we take forgranted is sleep. And I will spend quite a bit of time on, I think two slides, talkingabout sleep in more, in more depth. And, but I wanted to raise this question now just becauseI want people to think about the, the context of your questions regarding smart drugs orsmart nutrients. [phone ringing] [pause] Food – starting with the boring stuff workingforward; B-complex vitamins. [phone ringing] Okay. I’ll just let it ring. B-complex vitamins never really get any respect;haven’t for 40 years because you’re talking about one penny a day of your investment inyour nutrition program – I mean that’s just a, it’s too old and too plain – but it’s reallycritical. Detoxification – we’re starting to get intosome more risky stuff in terms of stress to your body. Nutrients can get pretty exotic. You can spenda huge amount of money on nutrients. And amino acids get even more high tech. I’llget into that in terms brain neurotransmitter levels later. And then we get into the overtly medical:hormone replacement and pharmaceuticals. And I would also put herbs somewhere in thiscategory in terms of a lot of complexity and a lot of potential for toxicity, as well,even though they’re natural. [pause] Okay. So, I’m, I’m picking from the questionson the announcement starting off with: which nutrients promote optimal brain function?And the answer is all of them. If they’re deficient they’re affecting your brain. [pause] Some of these are also effective way beyondphysiological levels. So in a sense, we cannot use Mother Nature as a guide for optimal brainfunction, because Mother Nature always gives us brain function per unit investment in nutrition. In the wild, the cost of a gram of VitaminC is actually quite profound. You might fall out of the tree, break your arm and die fromtrying to get one gram of Vitamin C. But if you’re gonna buy it in your health food store,you’re gonna pay between two and twenty cents for it. I mean, why worry about it? [pause] Next question I like to ask is: are they sustainable?Because a lot of these dietary supplement formulas out there that are designed to giveyou a smart pill, are not really sustainable. The first day you take it; it lights you uplike a Christmas tree. But after a week, after a month you’re back to baseline again. Butyou don’t necessarily know that if you’re judging the value of the supplement basedon its short term benefit to you, at the point that you started to take it. So the human mind is very able to make a causeand effect connection between something that

brain teaser questions and answers for adultsSo the human mind is very able to make a causeand effect connection between something that you do and an effect that happens a minuteor an hour later, but if the effect is a week or a month later, good luck. It’s not also about the parts. It’s abouthow well they work together. So metabolism is a key aspect of how yourbrain works. Three percent of your body uses 20 percent of your energy. If you have a slightdownturn, let’s say 30 percent in your heart function, you won’t see it if you’re not exercisingat peak performance; but if 30 percent of your brain energy goes away, you are unconscious. [pause] So I’ll also get around to talking about someof these other kinds of things. So this is really, goes to the question of:what is your orientation towards a smart drug program and being the best that you can be? A lot of this is not exotic. It’s basic — food,breathing, nutrition, exercise, things that you’ve heard a thousand times before. So I’mnot gonna give you a real quick fix for how to bypass all of that. [pause] I’m gonna intersperse a couple of slides. This is a really fascinating slide to me becauseit goes down to a really fundamental aspect of, of nature in life that turns out to becritical to the area of having a brain at all. And that is that anaerobic organisms, theenergy levels are so inadequate – the anaerobic systems – that you only get two ATP out ofa, of a, of a glucose that’s burned; which is enough to give you life, but it’s not enoughto give you robust life. It’s not enough to give you multi-cellular life and it’s notenough to give you consciousness in a brain, a working brain. For that you need aerobic metabolism and youget 38 ATP versus two; this gives you room to play with and this is why the brain usesmassive amounts of energy. So if you focus on the issue of energy, you’lldo a good job. Turns out this is critical for Alzheimer’s Disease. [pause] This is the slide from the Alzheimer’s presentation.I’m getting it out of the way. So before anybody passes out, take a deep breath. Okay. Good. [laughter] Energy production systems flow into enzymeactivity, protein synthesis, healing abilities, the ion pumping and your nervous system membranesmanufacture neurotransmitters; all of these functions that are critical to the brain turnout to be dependent upon energy, cellular energy production. So the ATP is, is like the, the wire thatkeeps your brain functioning. Keeps you sharp. Keeps you from having Alzheimer’s Disease. If you wanna look up this, this entire presentationis, if you go to YouTube and type in Reversing Alzheimer’s Disease, or type in my name, you’llgo to a nine-part series on Alzheimer’s Disease and how to reverse it. And this critical step right here, that relatesto the glutathione, the mercury glutathione ratio, when that fails all of this downstreamstuff happens for Alzheimer’s Disease. And so if you can reverse this, the Alzheimer’sDisease reverses. [pause] So, anybody wanna vote? [pause] Okay. Thirty percent of teenagers using, eatinga standard American diet in public schools, have IQ deficits that are correctable by supplementingto correct the deficiencies; thirty percent. And the IQ difference is ten points for thosekids; thirty percent of the kids. You give them the supplements; their IQ goes up by10 points. This has been replicated in California andGreat Britain. Two studies were done in parallel with exactly the same results. And it’s beenreplicated in juvenile correctional facilities where they’ve shown that when you correctthese nutritional deficiencies, you see broad changes in EEG and behavior. [pause] Here’s an example of a study that was donethat showed that RDA supplements of B vitamins; three B vitamins at levels of 30 to 60 timesthe RDA, resulted in cumulative improvement

brain teaser questions and answers for adultsthree B vitamins at levels of 30 to 60 timesthe RDA, resulted in cumulative improvement in marksmanship. So this was a, a blindedstudy and so the – what was fascinating to me – is that the B-complex vitamins have ahalf-life of about four to five hours and yet the sustainability of these results magni – was observed over 10 weeks. [phone ringing] [pause] Here’s an, a couple of other examples. Zincin teenage boys. The joys of masturbation lead to zinc deficiencies and that causesthe brain to stop functioning. [laughter] Masturbation leads to insanity. Your grandmotherwas right. [laughter] Vitamin D and magnesium are two very wide-spreaddeficiencies. Anybody who lives at sea level and who lives in an urban environment is veryunlikely to ever meet their adequate level of Vitamin D from sunlight, even if you likesunbathing without clothes. Typically in the winter, if you live in San Francisco, nudesunbathing will actually get you some Vitamin D, but if you do that in Oakland, you willnot get any Vitamin D at all, even at noon. B-12 and pregnenolone and melatonin in theelderly; examples of deficiencies that can be addressed that are specific to certainpopulations. [phone ringing] So I’m gonna give you some examples of howthis works in terms of a, this is another illustration from the, from the video whereit talks about the neuroprotective steroids at the base of the tree; pregnenolone andprogesterone which then go up the tree DHEA, testosterone, the estrogens – well it turnsout that the estrogens here have an anti-metabolic effect. They impair your synthesis of energy.And this is why women have more stamina then men. [pause] But it’s also why when men get inflammation,they make more estrogen and they start gaining weight and they start having all kinds ofhealth problems, as well. The down side of estrogen, of having too much estrogen, isquite profound to the brain. And so if you have inflammation, this pathway gets activated;that pathway gets activated; and this pathway gets activated. So it turns these protective,beneficial, energetic steroids into anti-metabolic steroids. [pause] So if you don’t watch and you have an infection,you can have cognitive consequences from it. Here’s an example of a broad selection ofobserved effects that are highlights from stuff that I’ve observed over the last 30years. Violence tendencies, memory problems, Alzheimer’sDisease, panic attacks (this also includes hiccups), IQ problems, senility syndromesfrom blood coagulation; this is also a side effect of infection. [pause] PH imbalances in the blood that impair oxygenand binding and release and CO2 binding and release. Brain fog. How many people have experiencedbrain fog? [some people in audience raise hands] How many people are getting a little bit sleepyright now from just having eaten? [some people in audience raise hands] [pause] Well, let’s go on. I got two minutes per slide, so. [laughs] Okay. How can you get a better night’s sleep? First of all, pay attention, don’t take itfor granted. Second one is pay attention to sound. Yourbrain never stops listening. When you go to sleep, your brain is still listening to what’sgoing on around you. The paralysis that happens at the brain stemthat shuts off your motor control function for your entire body, does not affect yourhearing; does not affect your sight; does not affect your taste buds. So make sure that you have sound that is comfortingand predictable and anticipated. So if you live in an area where you have lots of hornshonking and car alarms going off and this kind of thing, put some sound in your backgroundthat you can listen to day after day after day, night after night, so that the part ofyour brain that’s listening doesn’t get alerted.

brain teaser questions and answers for adults day, night after night, so that the part ofyour brain that’s listening doesn’t get alerted.

brain teaser questions and answers for adultsday, night after night, so that the part ofyour brain that’s listening doesn’t get alerted. [pause] Sleep with regularity. Don’t stay up to fivein the morning and then do an all nighter. Sleep regularly. Sleep in the dark. Stray light suppressesmelatonin. You need to be in the dark and the dose and the timing is very critical formelatonin, and when you wake up in the morning, wake up with red light. That’s the dawn anddusk effect. When the sun goes up what color is it? Red. Okay. When it sets, what coloris it? Red. And so dark adaptation that happens at nightis mitigated by red light. So if you want to set up a light in your bedroom or in yourbathroom – I have two flood lamps in my bathroom so when I’m sitting on the john, I just turnthem on and I get bathed in red light; incandescent light. Very helpful for keeping your circadian rhythmgoing. If you need tryptophan for serotonin, youcan use that, occasionally. However, I suggest that you keep your dose down. There are somepotential adverse health effects from using melatonin indiscrim – or excuse me tryptophanindiscriminately or 5-hydroxytryptophan. And so if you mix your tryptophan with predigestivecollagen protein, you can use doses that are one-tenth as large and get a better hypnoticeffect. [pause] This is the tough part. [pause] Anybody with chronic inflammation is gonnahave consequences; health consequences; degenerative health consequences. But identifying inflammation – it’s a tough one. You go to a doctor and ask them to help youwith it; good luck. If you have unlimited amounts of money, you can throw PCR testsat things and stuff, but it’s, it’s a really tough problem. So if you can focus on the issue of possibleinfections; if you have chronic issues with, for example, herpes flare-ups; if you canbalance yourself with Vitamin D and Vitamin A and reduce that, that inflammatory effect,your health will benefit greatly as well as your sleep will benefit greatly. Food allergies; delayed hypersensitivitiesto things like wheat or corn or yeast or milk; to pick four of the top five food allergies. If you can clean those out of your life, you’llbe better off for it; or adding digestive enzymes to help you digest your foods. And the gut; the integrity of the gut. Thingslike zinc, for example; low dose zinc with each meal can help tighten up your gut andprevent food, undigested food particles from passing in and producing inflammation. [pause] And if you need a sleep drug, don’t use Ambien.Use Xyrem. Xyrem is a nutrient. It was declared to be the date rape drug by the FDA and thenthey made it a prescription orphan drug. It’s now available and Xyrem is a great way toget very, very good sleep, and it’s one of the few drugs that enhances the Stage 3 andStage 4 architecture phases of sleep. Normally when you go to sleep, you go Stage1, Stage 2, Stage 3, Stage 4 and then up into rapid eye movement; and that takes about 90minutes. And as we age, the Stage 3 and Stage 4 phasesget compromised. And by the time people reach middle age, oftentimes they will not haveany Stage 4 sleep at all. And by the time people hit 70 to 90, theyusually don’t have any Stage 3 sleep as well. And what this means is is that you’re notreally asleep at night and you’re not really awake during the day. You need to be deeply asleep to be deeplyawake. And Xyrem does that. It specifically enhances Stage 3 and Stage 4 sleep. By the way, this is a hundred times more expensivethan it was as a nutrient before the FDA took it off the marketplace. [pause] Here’s a challenge for the, the geeks in theaudience, the nerds, you know, a perfect audience to consider this high tech solution: do-it-yourselfsleep studies. So what you can do is, is you can set up a camcorder and video tape andaudio tape your sleep at night; play it back at 10 times speed the next day; and see what’sgoing on with your sleep. Are you waking up? Are you vocalizing? Areyou moving? Is your breathing changing? Do

brain teaser questions and answers for adultsAre you waking up? Are you vocalizing? Areyou moving? Is your breathing changing? Do you have apnea? All of that stuff can be verifiedat home. At some point in the next 10 years, this willprobably be over the counter. Right now, there’s a vacuum. [pause] Is there an alternative to SRI drugs? Lots. Let’s start with the least respect. B vitamins.The Rodney Dangerfield of nutrients. >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Yes? >>Voice in audience: What’s SRI? >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Serotonin reuptake inhibitors.They’re also called SSRI’s although the first S is really more promotion than fact. So Ijust delete the first S. Zoloft, Paxil – [pause] Mineral deficiencies; correcting mineral deficienciesand discovering undisclosed or unrecognized toxicities. I have a 94 year old client whohad Alzheimer’s Disease, who had an undiagnosed lead toxicity. So these things can go on for20, 40, 60 years and you don’t know about it. [pause] Yes? >>Q: Can you define deficiency or just, youbeen using the term a lot, is it something that if you get more of it, you get betteror is there an actual number? >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Uh. >>Q: What is the deficiency? >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Deficiency? Oh, wellthere, that’s a good question. The question what is a deficiency? And are there numbersattached to it? And the answers are yes, however, there isn’t a consensus on it. So if you go to Vitamin Diagnostics in NewJersey and ask them, they’ll define it in terms of normative numbers. How many standarddeviations in the general population? Are you above? Below? So they define it basedon statistics. And most medical tests are done that way. You get a cholesterol level; it’s based onstatistics. You get a thyroid T4 TSH level; it’s based on statistics. But there are other kinds of companies likeSpectracell in Texas who do a functional assay. So they’re looking at the ability of whiteblood cells to proliferate in the presence of a nutritional challenge. And so if you take away B-12 and your cells,your cells immediately stop proliferating, then they presume this means you have very,very low B-12 reserves. And so they’re defining deficiency in that, in that context as theperformance of those cells under a stress. But in terms of minerals, for example, I woulddefine it in terms of enzyme activity. In other words, superoxide dismutase uses copperand so is the activity that superoxide dismutased increased if you supplement copper? If theanswer is yes, then you were deficient. If the answer is – if there’s a slight increasethen you were slightly deficient; if there’s a massive increase, you were seriously deficient. So there’s a lot of that kind of questiongoing on. All I can say is that you cannot assume that kind of question in a straightforwardmanner and be able to even interpret your own medical results. I’ve had hundreds and hundreds of clientsover 30 years who’ve come to me with thyroid workups that were – one was done right. Hundredsof people; one was done right. And I’ve had somebody come to me with a rangefrom let’s say 10 to 100 and they got 11. And the doctor says: “Oh. Your thyroid isnormal. You don’t have hypothyroidism.” Okay. And yet when we give that person thyroid hormone,boom. Their energy goes up; their depression goes away; they start sleeping soundly; theylose 20 pounds of weight. And on every measure of functionality they’re better off, but accordingto the numbers, statistically, they were fine before. [pause] Neurotransmitter precursors. Huge aspect ofdepression and you can load them up. Tryptophan, 5 hydroxytryptophan is a precursor for serotonin.So if you take it and your depression goes away, guess what? So you can take Paxil toraise your serotonin; Zoloft; or you can take 5-HTP or tryptophan to do it and see. Doesit work? You go to a standard doctor. They’re not gonna even mention this option to you. D Phenylalanine or L Phenylalanine or Tyracinewill raise your Catecholamines. It’s another potential cause of depression. [pause] Hypothyroidism I just mentioned. Get a proper workup. You have to know theright questions to ask. And you wanna have – check the results yourself. Anytime a doctordoes a thyroid test and just tells you you’re fine, ask for the copy of the results. I actuallysuggest you do that anyway. Keep a copy of your own medical record in toto. Estrogen dominance. Iodine therapy is oneway to shift estrogen dominance. Estriol is a estrogen hormone that gets very little respectand iodine helps push estrogens into the Estriol form. Estriol is protective against autoimmunediseases in both men and women. In women it’s been proven, and men it’s just inferred. ButI’m convinced that it’s actually true. Estrogen dominance in men. Don’t take yourdoctor’s word for it when they say: “Estrogen is a, is the female hormone.” It’s not true.Estrogen is the off hormone in both men and women, and if your estrogen is high, you needto know about this. [pause] If you are gonna take SRI drugs, you can takethem with tryptophan or 5-hydroxitryptophan. So that when this serotonin reuptake inhibitorinterferes with the recycling of serotonin, which is what it’s doing, and causes a correspondingdepletion of your serotonin storage form, the 5-HT will correct that. And so your doctor may tell you that: “Oh,yes. You can have serotonin syndrome and die from taking these two together.” But actuallyyou have to be quite careless to actually make that happen. And if you do it with careand deliberation, it is entirely safe. [pause] Oh, this is a fun one. [laughs] I really liketalking about nutrition myths. And that whole thing about masturbation leading to insanitywas part of an earlier talk about myths in nutrition where I threw that one in the middlejust to wake everybody up. But there’s a lot of nutrition myths out therein the world today and some of them are being promoted by industries that have a vestedinterest in, in having you use their products. Others are based on just plain ignorance.People not knowing what the true information about things are. These are old myths. How many have heard this:hydrogenated fats are perfectly safe? [some people in audience raise hands] That means you’re pretty old, right? [laughter] I mean that’s what I grew up with. Corn oil. My father was a cardiologist andI grew up on corn oil. And that was part of that, that kind of myth at the time. Vegetable oils and margarines are safer thanbutter. That was the myth. It’s all crap. Bovine soil enhancement. [pause] Eating low fat can make you thin. We’re nowin a more modern myth. Complex carbs are best for insulin resistance.This is the advice given to people with insulin resistance and Type II diabetes by the AmericanDiabetic Association. It’s not true. [pause] Eating fat causes heart disease and obesity. Tropical oils. Anybody remember that campaignin about popcorn in the movie theaters. Was it about 15, 20 years ago? And coconut oilused to be used regularly in movie theaters, and all of a sudden it became some huge crimeand it turns out it was the Ameri, the US oil industry that paid for that, abetted bythe US Government. And it wasn’t true at all. Tropical oils are not dangerous at all. Milk and bread are good healthy foods. Ofcourse, it’s the milk purveyors and the bread salesmen who are telling us that. [pause] Yeah. How many people here have heard that milkis one very fast way to develop osteoporosis? [some people in audience raise their hands] Ten or twelve people. That’s pretty good.You’re ahead of the curve. But it’s true. The correlation with osteoporosisis not that milk is protective. It’s actually a risk factor. [pause] >>Q: I have one question. >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Yes. >>Q: So what is so exactly bad about milkand bread? I mean, >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: What’s bad about milkand bread? >>Q: Yes. If the myth is milk and bread isgood, then the fact should be milk and bread is bad. >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: That’s right. It is.And for the average person. And the reason is because of inflammation. That for mostpeople when you consume milk products, you have an inflammatory response. And it’s probablytrue of somewhere between 60 and 80 percent of people, depending upon what your ethnicbackground, your race is. If you are black, you’re probably 95 percent likely to haveinflammation from drinking milk. If you’re white, maybe it’s 50 percent. In terms of bread: bread is a source of wheatand wheat contains a protein called gluten which is extremely difficult to digest. Andundigested gluten protein is an inflammatory effect that causes all kinds of degenerativeproblems and stress to your gut, and inflammatory effects producing heart disease and probablycancer as well. And so my suggestion is, don’t drink milkand don’t eat bread. [laughter] Very, very, very straightforward. Just eliminatethose from your system. And if you’re gonna eat them, eat them rarely so that the reasonthat you’re eating the bread is because you’ve gone to Aunt Mildred’s house for Christmasand you’re trapped. And so it’s okay; it’s once a year; twice a year; that kind of thing.And if you can, take digestive enzymes with you to help offload the burden. It’s not just wheat that is difficult to digest.Corn is difficult to digest. Red meat is difficult to digest. Yeast very, very difficult to digest.The cell wall of yeast is not something that humans have good enzyme profile for digestingit. So try to keep those kinds of things undercontrol, particularly if you have signs of inflammation. If your estrogen to testosteroneratio is high in estrogen, then you wanna look for these kinds of triggers. [pause] >>Q: So excuse me. >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Yes. >>Q: Milk includes any milk products, I mean,cheese – >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: No. It, well it does,on some level. I would put – there’s a couple of things – one is, when you feed milk tomicrobes, the microbe takes the brunt of it. Okay. So yogurt there’s still milk contentin it because it’s a fairly soft kind of cheese; a fresh kind of cheese; same thing with cottagecheese. But when you start to deal with cheddar oraged cheddars, the content of milk is going down and down and down, the longer the milkhas been fermenting; and the bugs in it. >>Q: So, >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: So – >>Q: [unintelligible] >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: I can’t hear. There’stoo much noise. Can you stand up to the microphone? >>Q: And what about the difference betweenraw milk and processed milk? >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Yes. There, the raw milkhas good fat structure and, that’s destroyed by the homogenization. Homogenized milk causesenzyme irritation of the vascular system; antioxidase. So it’s true that raw milk isway better. But in terms of, of, of allergy, it may notbe better at all. So it depends on your system and whether or not you’re handling it wellor not. There is a test that you can do if you wanna find out. Is go off of milk fortwo weeks; all milk products; all egg, butter, anything with dairy. Go off of it for twoweeks. At the end of two weeks, sit down at a table with a friend and engage in conversationfor about three hours; set up a tape recorder; set up a metronome; adjust the metronome sothat it’s not fast and not slow and it’s just synchronized with your, with your body; andthen put one drop of milk under your tongue. And watch what happens. And ask your friendto watch what happens. If you freak out; if the metronome slows down; you’re allergicto milk. [pause] If your pulse rate goes up dramatically; you’reallergic to milk. [pause] Vitamins only enrich the sewer. We’re goingback to the old days, but there’s still people out there who have that kind of attitude. [pause] Okay. Here’s some myths to live by. I’m notgonna say this is all quite scientific, because I think that on some level it’s based on prejudiceand philosophy and all kinds of stuff. But low carb vegetables is a mainstay forthe diet. Eat meat; either tiny amounts to moderate amounts. Tiny amounts can just besimply the bugs in your grain, as it is in India. But we need small amounts of meat toget our Vitamin B-12. Cultivate fat burning mode. This is a bigone. In my opinion, the graceful agers in the world are all in fat burning mode. Thisis not emphasized in our modern society. It doesn’t happen if we overeat carbohydratewhich is a cultural thing. But get into ketosis; cultivate your fat burningmode; flip back and forth into ketosis and out, so you exercise that part of your metabolism.And that, to do that consume tropical oils, coconut oil is my favorite. Eat less carbsand calories than your peers; under eat is a healthy lifestyle. And so – [pause] Okay. Here’s my words of wisdom. If their lips are moving, they’re lying. [laughs] [laughter] Okay. Industry ads: they want to sell youmilk; they want to sell you oils that are grown in the United States. Coconut oil isgrown in the Tropics. So that’s why the prejudices is, in those industry ads. The food pyramid is upside down. Okay, againthe government agents that put that together are working for the industry. Assume your docster, your doctor is profoundlyignorant. And that doesn’t mean that they’re not smart. They’re exceedingly smart. Theyknow all kinds of stuff that they really don’t need to know. [laughter] But the part is, the question is, what dothey not know? And what risk does this put you at? What does their ignorance put youat? And doctors will rarely admit their ignorance. You ask them a question they don’t know, they’llmake it up; most of them. But if you know what your doctor knows, and you know whatyour doctor doesn’t know, you’re in a better position to protect yourself against possibleadverse side effects. I had one client that was almost killed becausea doctor was using serum potassium to judge his potassium requirement and he was toldby his, by the patient and by his wife, that he’s a potassium over accumulator and thereforegiving him potassium was dangerous. The doctor said: “No, no, no, no. Serum potassium isan accurate indicator of potassium status” and put it in his IV and drove him into heartfailure. Even had him on Digoxin before he, and he still didn’t admit that, that was inappropriateaction. Wife had to check him out of the hospital to save his life. [pause] And I’m an expert that you should also believeis biased. [pause] [laughter] Good. You’re not asleep. [pause] Don’t work in a “sick” building. Okay. You’vegot good people taking care of you here, but if you work in a building where you have formaldehydeor acidaldyhyde in the air, you get sick. I had a friend who went to the, who was ateacher at the Oakland Public School, Oakland City High School, who they did a completeearthquake retrofit during the summer, and had double time and triple time crews in thebuilding putting in carpeting and painting and new particle board furniture and stuff.And on the Monday all the kids came in and the teachers came in; they had a 30 percentabsentee rate for the next three months from people getting sick. Well when those peoplestarted using Vitamin C and cysteine, they became symptom free. This goes back to 1975 when a research groupgave C and cysteine to animals that were exposed to an LD 90 dose of acidaldahyde; which isenough to kill 90 percent of the animals and make the other 10 percent violently sick.And when they were given the C and cysteine, they didn’t get sick. They didn’t die. Noneof them got sick and none of them died. That’s how powerful this particular formula is. You can go out and drink yourself unconsciousand not have a hangover, unless you have the genetic polymorphism in which case you mayhave some residual hangover. So Asians, Native Americans, Irish, other, other populationsalso contain that, it’s called alcohol, or aldehyde dehydrogenase and there’s a deficiency,a genetic mutation that a lot of people carry that impairs their ability to smoothly metabolizealcohol. But this formula helps take care of that. You take one capsule before the first round;one capsule between each round; [laughter] and one capsule after the last round; drinka glass of water; and go to sleep. Pretty simple. [pause] So, here’s the, the basic, the active groupis the sulfhydryl group here. From cysteine – and cysteine is found in glutathione; it’sa component of it. And cysteine is also found in N-acetylcysteine, which is a dietary supplementform that seems to have some improved transport ability. So for some people it works better. [pause] This is the metabolic pathway and I’m gonnapartially get into all the negative stuff that happens from alcohol; from cross linkingeffect which is by far the most dangerous process; this is what gives you wrinkled skin.Carcinogenicity happens as well, but the detoxification pathway here prevents all of these other pathways;competes against them. That’s how it works. Benefits of alcohol are pretty obvious: lifestyle;biological effects. And so costs of alcohol: cross linking; wrinkles;organ damage; liver damage; oxidative stress; hangovers; pro-aging; addiction. Through glucoseaddiction; serotonin addiction; and NADH addiction; cancer and degenerative diseases; poisons. Methanol which is protected by the sulfhydrylcompounds which is found in some alcoholic drinks and fermentation residues that arefound in a lot of distilled drinks; some of these are protected against and some of themare not by that alcohol formula. You don’t need to know this. Okay. Here’s contact information. I can flipback to this if you’d like. But what I’d like to do now is open it up for questions andhere’s some suggestions if you can’t come up with your own. So, step up and ask on themicrophone, please. >>Q: I have a question about this milk breadthing. I mean, I just had to laugh when I see this. Like half the world or probablymore than half the world is eating bread and milk like for more than, I don’t know, tenthousand years, and you’re telling me: “No, no, no. Don’t do this.” I mean I personally think that’s crazy, butlike what is, what else should I do? Should I drink water or? So instead of eating milkand bread should I take like a hundred different colored pills? I mean is that gonna help? >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Oh no. I mean you can,but I don’t think it particularly wise. >>Q: Okay. >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Not only are gonna spenda fortune, but you’re not gonna get good, very good nutrition. The issue is, I mean,certainly children can tolerate milk. But if you look at infant studies and feedingwhen for, for one reason or another, children cannot be best fred, breast fed – the, the,there is all kinds of consequences that happen. And if you give prenatal infants milk products,there’s a good chance you’re gonna kill them. So if you, if you read the literature on milk,it’s pretty straight forward. And the reason that you may not know about it is becausevery little of that gets publicized. I think any kind of fluid would probably be betterthan milk overall. But milk has nutrition in it. There’s, there’s calcium although,you know, that’s what it’s promoted for – that milk has calcium – but it turns out that interms of calcium, it’s not a very good food. You get better food, better calcium levelsfrom grain, for example. But I’m also telling you to avoid grain. >>Q: Yeah, I mean [laughs] >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: So, I’m not – so thequestion comes down to what do you eat? And I’d say the answer is the Paleolithic dietis the one that humans are probably best adapted to. And that is unlimited greens, particularlylow carb vegetables, the low carb vegetables and fruit and nuts when they’re in season,and meat when you can kill it. [pause] >>Q: Okay. So one thing I’ve noticed aboutmilk is that in the US or maybe North America it’s probably the only continent where youcan find in lots of like low fat and half fat and whatnot milk. Like in most other countriesdoesn’t exist. In Japan, for example, there’s only milk that has like four point five percentfat and you know, Japanese people are pretty healthy on average. >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Well, it’s not the, it’snot the fat that is my concern. It’s the caseine and whey in the milk, that are in my con – opinionthe risk factors. And the, the galactose. For example, anybody, any, in the United States,any low fat milk product has had milk solids added to it, to give it a mouth feel. Thatproduce cataracts. That’s a prescription for eye problems. And it doesn’t matter whetheryou get one percent non-fat; one percent, two percent, three percent; it’s all startsfrom non-fat milk in which they take the fat and add it back. So they still, it still hasthe non-fat milk solids in it. So I’d say go back to raw milk and drink itwith all the fat, if you’re gonna do that and if you don’t want the milk and you reactbadly to it, find any other kind of food and you’ll do better with it. >>Q: Alright. >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: I mean people who don’tdrink milk as a whole, have a lower risk of osteoporosis. So the whole idea of calciumas being essential for milk is fundamentally just a PR campaign. >>Q: Alright. >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Yeah. >>Q: Hi. Yes, I was a little confused as towhat advice you had in terms of insulin resistance. You mention complex carbohydrates and, youknow, clearly, I’m guessing what you mean is something along the lines of, oh well,even if it’s complex carbs in your bread, it’s not as good say eating vegetables or,you know. What are you suggesting for insulin resistant individuals? >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Vegetables. And carbohydratecontrol is the number one prescription for insulin resistance. Keeping your carbohydratedown to the point that your body is burning fat as a, as a, for, for energy, as a fuel,that’s the fastest way to reverse insulin resistance. Ketosis if you can manage it, if you’re actualdiabetic, you need to manage that medically to do it safely; but if you’re just pre-diabetic,you just have insulin resistance, get into ketosis. [pause] >>Q: Can you explain ketosis? >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Ketosis is, there’s twokinds of fat burning mode in your body. And ketosis is where your liver is burning thefat and exporting what are called ketone fuels to the rest of your body. So the fat is basicallytaking, the, the liver is taking the fat which is let’s say anywhere from 12 to 20 carbonslong, usually 16, 18 and it clips it in four carbon fragments. And those are exported tothe body; those are called ketone fuels and the affinity of your body’s tissues for themis about ten times what it is for glucose. So if you take a, let’s say a rodent withinduced congestive heart failure and you inject them with ketone fuels, you’ll see a 50 percentincrease in heart ejection fraction in 30 minutes. That’s how fast it is. And all of the tissues of the body, the liver,the kidney, muscles, they all absorb these ketone fuels at a very, very high rate; veryefficiently. And so when you’re in ketosis it’s a very good way of handling issues likeend stage organ failure. But it’s not used by our current medical system. In terms of the, the, the alternative to ketosisis just called beta-oxidation. This is what the liver does to make ketones, but all thetissues of your body are also capable of burning fat. [pause] So they just take the fat and instead of absorbingit from the liver, they’re just taking the fat and clipping it themselves. And this givesyou a source of energy that’s independent of glucose. So if you’re insulin resistant, and you’redepending upon glucose for energy, you’re energy is sabotaged. You’re browned out. Insteadof having 110 volts your brain’s livin’ on 90 volts or 70 volts. It’s gonna affect howyour brain works. But if you go into ketosis, now you’ve gotsugar energy and you’ve got ketone fuels for energy. Your backup generator is now on. Soyou’re now back up to 110 volts. Even if you’re still insulin resistant, because your backupgenerator is able to give you that extra voltage to make it work. And what happens is, is that your insulinresistance reverses as you have these ketone fuels out there and so you become better andbetter able to burn glucose by burning fat. [pause] Does that make sense? [pause] >>Q: I could ask a lot of questions and I, – >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: You can. >>Q: Hopefully I’ll save them ’till later. >>Steven Wm. Fockes: Let me suggest a book.If you haven’t seen it; Gary Taubes. Good Calories, Bad Calories. He’s movin’ out tothe Bay Area, next, sometime soon. So we may have him here to talk. >>Q: Okay. Great. >>[voice in audience]: April speaker at theSmart Life Forum. >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: April speaker at theSmart Life Forum. >>Q: Alright. So you mentioned glutathionewhich I’ve read lots of great things about that, but I’ve also read that just takingit directly does not give you much, that it doesn’t get absorbed very much. What can yousay about that? >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: It, there’s, it’s true.There is a problem absorbing it. But the, the people who say that none of it is absorbed,they’re lying. So there are people who are saying you can’t take glutathione becauseit’s digested. Well, maybe half of it is digested or maybe three-quarters of it is digested,or maybe one-quarter; so there is some benefit that you get from it, but it is true it’svery inefficient. But the real problem is it’s not sustainable.There’s all kinds of research on people selling dietary supplements with cysteine and N-acetylcysteine in it saying that it raises your glutathione. Well, there’s a real problemwith that. Because if you look a day later and two days later you see it does raise glutathione.But if you look a week and two weeks and two months later, you find out it doesn’t keepit up. The body’s – >>Q: prescribed – >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: The body’s correctivemechanism compensates for the intervention. >>Q: I see. Yeah, I’ve seen N-acetyl cysteineis also prescribed as a decongestant, so I don’t know if taking that over time is good.But one other question – >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: It’s also an excitotoxinlike aspartate and glutamate and aspartame (Nutrasweet). >>[voice in audience]: Wonderful. >>Steven Wm. Fowkese: It’s an irritant tothe brain and can aggravate calcium toxicity in the brain. >>Q: Okay. >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Yes. >>Q: So I’m 51 and I’ve, I have cataracts.And I have a friend who’s 49 who has cataracts or just like her doctor said, and I’m wonderingif you know – and by the way, I haven’t taken, I haven’t drunk milk for years – I got offthat; I do like hazelnut milk, I think it’s wonderful. But I was wondering if you’re awareof, you know, is there an increase in cataracts in our society? Is there something you’resuspicious of causing this or, or if you had any – >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: I think the connectionto milk is, is the real obvious one. But there’s a lot of falling apart going on around us.I mean, it’s, autism is way up; brain cancer is way up; there’s, there’s a lot of differentconditions that I think are up trending. Obesity; insulin resistance ? [pause] anybody else wanna pipe up from somethingout there? So this is not an uncommon thing and whenyou look at some of the old research there’s, there’s a cumulative effect that’s observedwith nutritional deficiencies. If you take animals and you run them throughseveral generations, each generation the nutritional deficiency has persisted, the effects becomemore and more intractable. And I think that that’s going on with us.That we’ve been degenerating our diet for long enough that it wasn’t just, it’s notjust us. It’s our parents and our grandparents who were starting this earlier withdifferent kinds of things. I was raised on coconut oil. That means mycancer likelihood is probably triple what it would have been if I hadn’t been. >>Voice in audience: Unintelligible. >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Hum? >>Voice in audience: [unintelligible] >>Steven Wm. Fockes: Corn oil. Excuse me.Thank you. Coconut, corn, it’s just. Okay. >>Q: So I actually had three questions foryou and you took the first one away just now, because your recommendations are all prettyconsistent with Good Calories, Bad Calories. Obviously, you would agree with that and endorsethat? >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: And, Ray Peat’s advice,I think has been consistently good for about 30 years. He’s one of those pioneers. Thisis stuff that I’ve been talking about for a long, long, long time. I’m just glad toput up anybody else as an authority beyond me for this kind of thing, because there isa problem anytime you go out in public and challenge the big lie. >>Q: So this leads me to my second questionwhich is: I don’t know if I missed this from the bio on the page or something, but if wedon’t trust anybody, why should we trust you? What, what – >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: You shouldn’t. >>Q: What’s your background or what’s yourqualifications for all this. >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: You shouldn’t trust me.You should always have some doubt for everything that you’re told. I’m an organic chemist,so that’s my background. Biochemistry, neurochemistry, all of this. But everything I’m talking toyou about, I learned outside of an educational institution. So I don’t have a Ph.D. to hold up there.And as a result, I think about the world in ways that are different from people who havebeen through the Ph.D. mill, who were institutionalized, who did, or educated in an institution. And so there’s a certain level of, of enablementthat happens with that and there’s a certain blindness that happens with it too, wherepeople become tracked. My day job is nanotechnology development. Well, it turns out that my core inventionfor, for nanostructural self-assembly system was based on knowledge that I learned in 1972in my sophomore organic chemistry class. That in, that I drew upon when I was hired as aconsultant in 2002. I went back to 1972; 30 year old information, and invented a polymerbecause I was, just looked at it differently than everybody else looked at it. And it took me three days to invent it. Ittook me three weeks to even admit that it was an invention because it was so obvious. >>Q: So my third question, you didn’t reallytalk about this, but it, the buzz word showed up on the slide, and it’s something that makesme very nervous. You talked about detoxification and there’s a lot of quack schemes out thereclaiming to be detoxification schemes, but it seems like some people actually might knowwhat they’re talking about also claim to have something to say about detoxification. So could you speak a little bit about that? >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: I, I think it’s true.And I’m not an expert enough to give you the, the pros and cons of all of it. I have the same reaction to herbalists. Thereare a lot of really amazing herbalists out there, but there are also a lot of peoplewho dabble. And herbs are potentially dangerous. Fivepercent of the weight of the average plant is devoted to chemicals that are designedto kill you. That’s how the plant survives. It can’t run away. It uses chemical warfare. So wheat has estrogens that make male animalsinfertile, male grain, for the buffalo; and mustard has mutagens in it; and alfalfa sproutshave canavanine which is an arginine mimic that produces autoimmune disease in humansand in chimpanzees. So plants are not put there to be our foodsfrom their own perspective. They don’t want to get eaten anymore than we want to get eaten.So that, that kind of issue of, of what the, what role toxicity plays is, in my opinion,not obvious. For example, how many people have heard anything that doesn’t kill youmakes you stronger? Well to some extent, phytotoxins are likethat. That when you expose yourself; you eat a very, very plant rich diet, you get allof these chemicals coming into your body; your liver’s capacity for detoxifying thingsgets higher and higher and higher and higher, and so you may be much better off having that,that overall defense being higher than you would be if you avoided all toxins; whichwe know when that’s been done is invariably very, very bad for the animals that are involved. In other words, if you eat a refined diet,not only are you gonna live half as long as you normally would, but your resistance toflu and accidents and traumas is way, way, way down. So there is something about stress and theadaptive capacity that’s induced by stress, that is helpful. And this is exercise. Howmany people have heard that exercise is good? [people in audience raise hands] Yeah. Right. Well, exercise produces freeradicals. Stress is your antioxidant defense system at the same time. But I’m suggestingthat that’s not bad; that the adaptive capacity is good. So here we are living in, in Googleplex andwe have a radiation level that is half of what people have who live in Denver. And yetdo they have twice as much cancer in Denver? No. Do they have twice as much free radicaldamage in Denver? No. It’s because both of us live in a realm ofradiation that is within the human adaptive capacity. You can go up to 10,000 feet ofaltitude and still be within that window. You put a human in a nuclear reactor and theydie. But there’s a bug, a microbe that can live inside the primary loop of a nuclearreactor. [pause] And that’s because they have this massiveadaptive capacity for oxidative stress. And so they’re able to handle it, 10, 20 timesbackground radiation. So there’s a lot of aspects of detoxification;a lot of aspects of, of health that are fundamentally based on, on stress and living in a pollutedworld. And, and plant pollution, or plant toxins are not fundamentally different frommanmade chemicals if you look at them from the perspective of what percentage of themare carcinogens; or what percentage of them are mutagens. The percentages are identical. But there may be some argument to say thaton some level maybe we’re adapted; well adapted to eating phytotoxins. [pause] >>Q: So my question is regarding allergy testingand elimination. And you mentioned when testing for a milk allergy to eliminate it for twoweeks, and I’ve seen some sort of detox programs that are basically around eating well forthree weeks eliminating things like bread and milk and so on. So my question is: wheredoes the two weeks or three weeks or four weeks, where does this number come, come fromand how do you know what’s appropriate? >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: The, the, I pick twoweeks because the delayed hypersensitivity, delayed hypersensitivity timeframe is sevento ten days. Seven to nine days. In order words, if you make IGA, IGG or IGM antibodiesto something, it’s gonna take six to nine days for those to fade away. And so if you try to do something in lesstime than that, you’re not gonna, you’re not gonna have a good baseline. And so two weeksis enough time for those, that response to attenuate and so now you’re in a sense restoringat least a partially naive body. But you can certainly do it longer. But whenI look at asking somebody to go for, off of milk for two weeks, it’s like asking somebodyto change their religion. This is a lifestyle adaptation which is on the par with an alcoholicgiving up booze; or something like this. And so I try to only ask people for some,what I would consider, kind of minimal level of performance to make the challenge as feasibleas possible. Bottom line, is if you’re not gonna do it, it doesn’t matter if I tell youthat you can do it. And so to make it worse, you’re just makingit tougher for people to, to comply. But so two weeks is, in my opinion, a very good choice.It fits into people’s natural time frames. People tend to organize their lives in termsof weeks. And so if you say one week, that’s obviously not enough. Three weeks is a weektoo long. So two weeks is fine. Do you – do you have one more question? >>Q: Coffee. >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Coffee. >>Q: Yes. >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: You want coffee? >>Q: Yes, I want coffee. >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Is there a bad side tocoffee? >>Q: No. What’s the real effect on brain performance? >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Oh. Well, caffeine isa, an insecticide. If you take coffee and you feed it to insects, they all die. Andcoffee beans don’t really need to keep from being eaten by humans, because humans typicallydon’t hang out where coffee grows. And so, but coffee beans do have to defendthemselves against other animals and insect predators and stuff like that. So, how many people have vegetable gardens? [some people in audience raise hands] Okay. How many people use their coffee groundsin their vegetable gardens? [some people in audience raise hands] Okay. Half of them. Yeah. It’s a very good insecticide. You putcoffee into growth media for fruit flies and they’ll never develop. They’ll all die. So, but in humans, humans — caffeine is notso poisonous in humans, it’s merely an irritant. Irritant to our central nervous system andso we get edgy from it; we get a lift; and, which we use constructively. But it lastsfor about two hours which corresponds to the timing of coffee breaks in the institutionalworkplace. And the downside is, is that it’s gonna interfere with your sleep and it’s gonnainterfere with your DNA replication, your DNA repair mechanisms. And so it’s probably better if humans don’tget exposed to caffeine, but on the whole it’s a relatively minor irritant in the bigpicture. >>Voice in audience: [unintelligible] >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Ah. Okay. Step rightup. The question is what kinds of tests would I recommend to find out whether people havedeficiencies? And there’s two ways to go that I suggest. One is the medical route. Go to your doctorand ask for certain tests. Those would include a red blood cell, trace mineral profile; acouple hundred bucks. And they test maybe 30, 40 different nutrients. You can also get normative blood cell, vitaminlevels. You can have the Spectracell functional medicine test for nutrients. You can do urine kelation challenge to findout if you have lead poisoning or mercury or cadmium, bismuth toxicity. The other way is to do it, what I call theself care option. In other words, you take it and you notice: does it work or not? Measureyour brain and then see before and after, does taking the nutrient help? And if it does, does it continue to help aftertwo weeks or two months. So do an ABAB process on it after you’ve been on it for two monthsand stop, and see if you note a decline in your scores. Of course, this requires you to be diligentabout measuring your brain function, and there’s basically several ways to do it. One of which is just to pay attention. Wellthe average person can’t tell a 30 percent drop in their mental performance from noneat all. In order words, we’re pretty insensitive. So that would suggest to me that you needto cultivate computer games; something that’s gonna measure eye hand coordination, dexterity,simple decision making, complex decision making. Tetris – two dimensional, three dimensionalrotations of blocks and how fast you can do it. A game where you have a cascade failure designwhere the game gets faster and faster and faster over time and when you make a mistakeit then jumps up faster as well. So both the timeframe and the number of mistakes bothlead you towards a failure. With this kind of data, you can make decisionsextremely rapidly. In terms of B-1, B-12, you can know in one week whether or not that’sa significant – on a scientific basis – you know in one day just experientially. But if you want to do an ABAB process it’lltake you a week to do it and then you’ll know for sure. And that’s a lot cheaper fundamentally ifyou’re already a nerd enough to do the study, the measurements of yourself and to buildthat infrastructure so that you have a really nice data stream and you can tell when ittrends up or when it trends down. And the nice thing about doing that, whichis why I do it and why I suggest other people do it, is that when you go into a hospitaland you get elective surgery and you find that the anesthesia hasn’t fully worn off,you will see the down trend event from that anesthesia, and you’ll know that there’s somethingthat isn’t been resolved. And you go back to the doctor and say: “Ineed T3 monotherapy for a week” or something else to restore your metabolism that the doctorbelieves, is, there is no residual effect from. [pause] Oops. I’m late. Over time. Okay. >>Commentator: Okay. Thank you very much. >>Steven Wm. Fowkes: Thank you. >>Commentator: That was it. [applause] [techno music]